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Equivalents, Substitutions

Equivalents:

3 teaspoons equals 1 tablespoon.
4 tablespoons equals 1/4 cup.
5 tablespoons + 1 teaspoon equals 1/3 cup.
8 tablespoons equals 1/2 cup.
10 tablespoons + 2 teaspoons equals 2/3 cup,
12 tablespoons equals 3/4 cup.
15 tablespoons equals 1 cup.
4 cups equals 1 quart.
4 quarts equals 1 gallon.

Substitutions

Thickening agents

for 1 oz. flour, substitute:

3-1/2 whole eggs (5-1/2 oz.)
7 egg yolks (5 oz.)
1-1/3 oz. quick-cooking tapioca
2/3 oz, cornstarch
1/2 oz. waxy maize
3/4 oz. bread crumbs

for one T. flour, substitute:

1/2 t. cornstarch
1/2 t. waxy maize
2 tsp. quick-cooking tapioca

File, as for file gumbo is also a thickening agent, I’ll research the amounts to help with this section on thickenting agents.

Shortening Agents:

for 1 pound of butter, substitute:

1 lb. margarine
7/8 lb. hydrogenated shortening + 1 tsp. salt
7/8 lb. lard + 1 tsp. salt
7/8 lb. oil (1-3/8 c.) + 1 tsp. salt
7/8 lb. chicken fat + 1 tsp. salt

Chocolate

for one ounce or one square of chocolate, substitute:

3 t. cocoa + 1t. fat

Leavening Agents:

for 1 T. Baking Powder, substitute:

1/4 tsp. soda + 5/8 tsp, cream of tartar
1/4 tsp. soda + 1/2 c. sour milk.
1/4 tsp. soda plus 1/2 t. vinegar used with-7-1/2 t. sweet milk
1/4 tsp. soda + 1/4 to 1/2 c. molasses
2 egg whites

for one small package, active dried yeast, substitute:

1 cake compressed yeast

for one ounce dried yeast, substitute:

2 oz. compressed yeast

Milk and Cream

for one cup milk, substitute:

1/4 c. (approximately) dry whole milk + 1 c. water
3 t. instant nonfat dry milk powder + 1 c. water and 3 t. butter
1/2 c. evaporated milk + 1/2 c. water

for one cup sour milk, substitute:

1 c. sweet milk + 1 t. lemon juice or vinegar

for one cup cream (thin, 18%-20% fat), substitute

7/8 c. milk + 3 t. butter

for one cup cream (thick, 36%-40% fat), substitute

3/4 c. milk + 1/3 c. butter

flour:

for 1 cup all purpose flour, substitute
1c. + 2 t. cake flour
7/8 c. corn meal
1 c. graham flour
1c. rye flour
1-1/4 c. bran
1-1/2 c. bread crumbs
1 c. rolled oats

onion
for 1 medium-sized onion, substitute
1 t. instant (dried) minced onion

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